Complication avoidance protocols in endoscopic pituitary adenoma surgery: a retrospective cohort study in 514 patients.
california; santa monica; sjci
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of using consistent complication-avoidance protocols in patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary adenoma surgery including techniques for avoiding anosmia, epistaxis, carotid artery injury, hypopituitarism, cerebrospinal fluid leaks and meningitis.
METHODS: All patients undergoing endoscopic adenoma resection from 2010 to 2020 were included. Primary outcomes included 90-day complication rates, gland function outcomes, reoperations, readmissions and length of stay. Secondary outcomes were extent of resection, short-term endocrine remission, vision recovery.
RESULTS: Of 514 patients, (mean age 51 ± 16 years; 78% macroadenomas, 19% prior surgery) major complications occurred in 18(3.5%) patients, most commonly CSF leak (9, 1.7%) and meningitis (4, 0.8%). In 14 of 18 patients, complications were deemed preventable. Four (0.8%) had complications with permanent sequelae (3 before 2016): one unexplained mortality, one stroke, one oculomotor nerve palsy, one oculoparesis. There were no internal carotid artery injuries, permanent visual worsening or permanent anosmia. New hypopituitarism occurred in 23/485(4.7%). Partial or complete hypopituitarism resolution occurred in 102/193(52.8%) patients. Median LOS was 2 days; 98.3% of patients were discharged home. Comparing 18 patients with major complications versus 496 without, median LOS was 7 versus 2 days, respectively p < 0.001. Readmissions occurred in 6%(31/535), mostly for hyponatremia (18/31). Gross total resection was achieved in 214/312(69%) endocrine-inactive adenomas; biochemical remission was achieved in 148/209(71%) endocrine-active adenomas. Visual field or acuity defects improved in 126/138(91.3%) patients.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that conformance to established protocols for endoscopic pituitary surgery may minimize complications, re-admissions and LOS while enhancing the likelihood of preserving gland function, although there remains opportunity for further improvements.
Thakur, Jai Deep; Corlin, Alex; Mallari, Regin Jay; Yawitz, Samantha; Eisenberg, Amalia; Sivakumar, Walavan; Griffiths, Chester; Carrau, Ricardo L; Rettinger, Sarah; Cohan, Pejman; Krauss, Howard; Araque, Katherine A; Barkhoudarian, Garni; and Kelly, Daniel F, "Complication avoidance protocols in endoscopic pituitary adenoma surgery: a retrospective cohort study in 514 patients." (2021). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 5056.