Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
oregon; portland; ppmc; chiles
BACKGROUND: Oncogenic alterations in RET represent important therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers.
METHODS: ARROW, a phase 1/2, open-label study done in 13 countries across 71 sites in community and hospital settings, enrolled patients 18 years or older with RET-altered locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET-mutant medullary thyroid and RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers, and an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment). Phase 2 primary endpoints assessed for patients who received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision, were overall response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1; masked independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed for patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had received previous cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, or were ineligible for standard therapy and patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer; safety was assessed for all patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer. This ongoing study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.
FINDINGS: Between Mar 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020, 122 patients with RET-mutant medullary and 20 with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers were enrolled. Among patients with baseline measurable disease who received pralsetinib by July 11, 2019 (enrolment cutoff for efficacy analysis), overall response rates were 15 (71%) of 21 (95% CI 48-89) in patients with treatment-naive RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer and 33 (60%) of 55 (95% CI 46-73) in patients who had previously received cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, and eight (89%) of nine (95% CI 52-100) in patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer (all responses confirmed for each group). Common (≥10%) grade 3 and above treatment-related adverse events among patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer enrolled by May 22, 2020, were hypertension (24 patients [17%] of 142), neutropenia (19 [13%]), lymphopenia (17 [12%]), and anaemia (14 [10%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 21 patients (15%), the most frequent (≥2%) of which was pneumonitis (five patients [4%]). Five patients [4%] discontinued owing to treatment-related events. One (1%) patient died owing to a treatment-related adverse event.
INTERPRETATION: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, potent once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer.
FUNDING: Blueprint Medicines.
Kidney & Diabetes
Earle A. Chiles Research Institute
Subbiah, Vivek; Hu, Mimi I; Wirth, Lori J; Schuler, Martin; Mansfield, Aaron S; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Brose, Marcia S; Zhu, Viola W; Leboulleux, Sophie; Bowles, Daniel W; Baik, Christina S; Adkins, Douglas; Keam, Bhumsuk; Matos, Ignacio; Garralda, Elena; Gainor, Justin F; Lopes, Gilberto; Lin, Chia-Chi; Godbert, Yann; Sarker, Debashis; Miller, Stephen G; Clifford, Corinne; Zhang, Hui; Turner, Christopher D; and Taylor, Matthew H, "Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study." (2021). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 4950.