INTRODUCTION: Pain management is the pillar of caring for patients with traumatic rib fractures. Intravenous lidocaine (IVL) is a well-established non-opioid analgesic for post-operative pain, yet its efficacy has yet to be investigated in trauma patients. We hypothesized that IVL is associated with decreased inpatient opioid requirements among patients with rib fractures.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated adult patients presenting to our Level 1 trauma center with isolated chest wall injuries. After 1:1 propensity score matching patients who received vs did not receive IVL, we compared the two groups' average daily opioid use, opioid use in the last 24 hours of admission, and pain scores during admissions hours 24-48. We performed multivariable linear regression for these outcomes (with sensitivity analysis for the opioid use outcomes), adjusting for age as a moderating factor and controlling for hospital length of stay and injury severity.
RESULTS: We identified 534 patients, among whom 226 received IVL. Those who received IVL were older and had more serious injury. Compared to propensity-score matched patients who did not receive IVL, patients who received IVL had similar average daily opioid use and pain scores, but 40% lower opioid use during the last 24 hours of admission (p = 0.002). Multivariable regression-with and without sensitivity analysis-did not show an effect of IVL on any outcomes.
CONCLUSION: IVL was crudely associated with decreased opioid requirements in the last 24 hours of admission, the time period associated with opioid use at 90 days post-discharge. However, we did not observe beneficial effects of IVL on multivariable adjusted analyses; we are conducting a randomized control trial to further evaluate IVL's opioid-sparing effects for patients with rib fractures.
Choi, Jeff; Zamary, Kirellos; Barreto, Nicolas B; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Davis, Kristen M; Trickey, Amber W; and Spain, David A, "Intravenous lidocaine as a non-opioid adjunct analgesic for traumatic rib fractures." (2020). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 3811.