American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
BACKGROUND: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk factors might predispose to severe disease.
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal disease and obstetrical outcomes associated with Covid-19 disease in pregnancy to rapidly inform clinical care.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of pregnant patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from six hospital systems in Washington State between January 21, 2020 and April 17, 2020. Demographics, medical and obstetric history, and Covid-19 encounter data were abstracted from medical records.
RESULTS: A total of 46 pregnant patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from hospital systems capturing 40% of births in Washington State. Nearly all pregnant individuals with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were symptomatic (93.5%, n=43) and the majority were in their second or third trimester (43.5%, n=20 and 50.0%, n=23, respectively). Symptoms resolved in a median of 24 days (interquartile range 13-37). Seven women were hospitalized (16%) including one admitted to the intensive care unit. Six cases (15%) were categorized as severe Covid-19 disease with nearly all patients being either overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, asthma or other co-morbidities. Eight deliveries occurred during the study period, including a preterm birth at 33 weeks to improve pulmonary status in a woman with Class III obesity. One stillbirth occurred of unknown etiology.
CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 15% of pregnant patients developed severe Covid-19, which occurred primarily in overweight or obese women with underlying conditions. Obesity and Covid-19 may synergistically increase risk for a medically-indicated preterm birth to improve maternal pulmonary status in late pregnancy. Collectively, these findings support categorizing pregnant patients as a higher risk group, particularly for those with chronic co-morbidities.
Women & Children
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lokken, Erica M; Walker, Christie L; Delaney, Shani; Kachikis, Alisa; Kretzer, Nicole M; Erickson, Anne; Resnick, Rebecca; Vanderhoeven, Jeroen; Hwang, Joseph K; Barnhart, Nena; Rah, Jasmine; Mccartney, Stephen A; Ma, Kimberly K; Huebner, Emily M; Thomas, Chad; Sheng, Jessica S; Paek, Bettina W; Retzlaff, Kristin; Kline, Carolyn R; Munson, Jeff; Blain, Michela; Lacourse, Sylvia M; Deutsch, Gail; and Adams Waldorf, Kristina, "Clinical Characteristics of 46 Pregnant Women with a SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Washington State." (2020). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 3123.