Title

Trends in vascular complications and associated treatment strategies following transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-10-2020

Publication Title

Journal of vascular surgery : official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

Keywords

Bleeding complications; Transcatheter aortic valve replacement; Vascular complications

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Vascular complications (VC) and bleeding complications impact morbidity and mortality after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TF-TAVR). Few contemporary studies have detailed these complications, associated treatment strategies, or clinical outcomes. We examined the incidence, predictors, treatment strategies, and outcomes of VCs in a multicenter cohort of patients undergoing TF-TAVR.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective registry and chart review of all nonclinical trial TF-TAVR patients from seven centers within a five-state hospital system from 2012 to 2016. Bleeding and VC were recorded as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium recommendations. Procedural and 30-day outcomes and 1-year mortality were compared between patients with no, minor, or major VC. Multivariable logistic and Cox regressions were used to identify predictors of major VC and mortality, respectively.

RESULTS: Over the study period, 1573 patients underwent TF-TAVR, with 96 (6.1%) experiencing a major VC and 77 (4.9%) experiencing a minor VC. The majority of VCs were access site related (74.2%), occurred intraoperatively (52.6%), and required interventional treatment (73.2%). The site, timing, and treatment method of VCs did not significantly change over the study period. Patients with VCs had a greater need for blood transfusion, longer postoperative length of stay, higher rates of cardiac events, increased vascular-related 30-day readmission, and higher 30-day mortality. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; 95% CI, 1.91-4.72) and prior percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 2.14 ; 95% CI, 1.38-3.31) were the strongest predictors of major VC. VCs modestly decreased over the study period: every 90-day increase in surgery date decreased the odds of major VC by 6% (95% CI, 1%-10%). Patients with major VCs had worse 1-year survival (OR, 79%; 95% CI, 69%-86%) compared with patients with minor VCs (OR, 92%; 95% CI, 82%-96%) or no VCs (OR, 88%; 95% CI, 87%-90%) (P = .002). However, for patients who survived more than 30 days, the 1-year survival did not differ between groups For patients who survived more than 30 days, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30-2.60) and the logit of STS mortality risk score (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.48-2.65) were the strongest predictors of mortality. After adjusting for other factors, minor and major VC were not predictors of 1-year mortality for patients who survived more than 30 days.

CONCLUSIONS: In our contemporary cohort, VCs after TF-TAVR have modestly decreased in recent years, but continue to impact perioperative outcomes. Patient selection, consideration of alternative access routes, and prompt recognition and treatment of VCs are critical elements in optimizing early clinical outcomes after TF-TAVR.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)

Department

Cardiology

Department

Surgery

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