Do annuloplasty rings designed to treat ischemic/functional mitral regurgitation alter left-ventricular dimensions in the acutely ischemic ovine heart?

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery


Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Fiducial Markers; Fluoroscopy; Heart Valve Prosthesis; Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation; Heart Ventricles; Hemodynamics; Male; Mitral Valve; Mitral Valve Annuloplasty; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Myocardial Ischemia; Prosthesis Design; Sheep, Domestic; Ventricular Function, Left; cardiac intervention; cardiomyopathy; heart failure; mitral regurgitation; mitral valve; mitral valve repair; pathophysiology; surgery techniques


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of annuloplasty rings designed to treat ischemic/functional mitral regurgitation on left ventricular septal-lateral (S-L) and commissure-commissure (C-C) dimensions.

METHODS: Radiopaque markers were placed as opposing pairs on the S-L and C-C aspects of the mitral annulus and the basal, equatorial, and apical level of the left ventricle (LV) in 30 sheep. Ten true-sized Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHY), Edwards IMR ETlogix (ETL), and GeoForm (GEO; all from Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) annuloplasty rings were inserted in a releasable fashion. After 90 seconds of left circumflex artery occlusion with the ring implanted (RING), 4-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy. After ring release, another data set was acquired after another 90 seconds of left circumflex artery occlusion (NO RING). S-L and C-C diameters were computed as the distances between the respective marker pairs at end-diastole. Percent change in diameters was calculated between RING versus NO RING as 100 × (diameter in centimeters [RING] - diameter in centimeters [NO RING])/diameter in centimeters [NO RING]).

RESULTS: Compared with NO RING, all ring types (PHY, ETL, and GEO) reduced mitral annular S-L dimensions by -20.7 ± 5.6%, -26.8 ± 3.9%, and -34.5 ± 3.8%, respectively. GEO reduced the S-L dimensions of the LV at the basal level only by -2.3 ± 2.4%, whereas all other S-L dimensions of the LV remained unchanged with all 3 rings implanted. PHY, ETL, and GEO reduced mitral annular C-C dimensions by -17.5 ± 4.8%, -19.6 ± 2.5, and -8.3 ± 4.9%, respectively, but none of the rings altered the C-C dimensions of the LV.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite radical reduction of mitral annular size, disease-specific ischemic/functional mitral regurgitation annuloplasty rings do not induce relevant changes of left ventricular dimensions in the acutely ischemic ovine heart.

Clinical Institute

Cardiovascular (Heart)