anatomy; buccal frenulum; cadaver; labial frenulum; mimetic muscle
Introduction The frenula of the oral vestibule include the labial and buccal frenula. Abnormal labial and buccal frenula can affect facial esthetics and oral cavity function by retracting the gingival margin, creating a median diastema, and limiting lip movement. Because of the lack of information on these structures, we aimed to clarify their anatomy. Methods A total of 34 sides from 17 fresh frozen cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in the present study. The specimens were derived from 11 male and 6 female adult cadavers. The relationships between the frenulum of the mucosa and the tissue underneath the mucosa was observed. Results The buccal frenulum was formed by the border of mimetic muscles and connective tissues. Comparitively, the labial frenulum was only formed by taut connective tissue. Conclusion We found that the buccal and labial frenula have different compositions. This finding may have relevance both in oral surgery and in various cosmetic procedures near the oral vestibule.
Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)
Iwanaga, Joe; Takeuchi, Naoshi; Oskouian, Rod J; and Tubbs, R Shane, "Clinical Anatomy of the Frenulum of the Oral Vestibule." (2017). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 2058.