Recurrence of Melanoma After a Negative Sentinel Node Biopsy: Predictors and Impact of Recurrence Site on Survival.
Annals of surgical oncology : the official journal of the Society of Surgical Oncology
BACKGROUND: Factors that predict melanoma recurrence after a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are not well-defined. We evaluated melanoma recurrence patterns, factors prognostic for recurrence, and the impact of recurrence on outcomes after a negative SLNB.
METHODS: The Sentinel Lymph Node Working Group database was evaluated from 1996 to 2016 for negative SLNB melanoma patients. Clinicopathologic characteristics were correlated with recurrence, overall survival (OS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS).
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 32.1 months. Recurrences developed in 558 of 5351 negative SLN patients (10.4%). First-site of recurrence included a local or in-transit recurrence (LITR) in 221 cases (4.1%), nodal recurrence (NR) in 109 cases (2%), and distant recurrence (DR) in 220 cases (4.1%). On multivariable analysis, age, thickness, head/neck or lower extremity primary, and microsatellitosis significantly predicted for an LITR as first-site. Having an LITR as first-site significantly predicted for a subsequent NR and DR, and significantly predicted for worse OS and MSS. Furthermore, thickness and head/neck or lower extremity primary significantly predicted for an NR as first-site, while a prior LITR significantly predicted for a subsequent NR. Factors significantly predictive for a DR included thickness, head/neck or trunk primary, ulceration, and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with any type of locoregional recurrence were at higher risk for a DR.
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrences occur in 10.4% of negative SLN patients, with LITR and DR being the most common types. Importantly, having an LITR significantly predicts for a subsequent NR and DR, and is prognostic for worse survival after a negative SLNB.
Thomas, Daniel C; Han, Gang; Leong, Stanley P; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Vetto, John; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Faries, Mark B; Schneebaum, Schlomo; Mozzillo, Nicola; Charney, Kim J; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Zager, Jonathan S; and Han, Dale, "Recurrence of Melanoma After a Negative Sentinel Node Biopsy: Predictors and Impact of Recurrence Site on Survival." (2019). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 1686.