Animals; Biomarkers; Brain Neoplasms; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cell Survival; Chemokine CCL17; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; Gene Expression; Humans; Immunophenotyping; Ligands; Male; Melanoma; Mice; Phenotype; Receptors, CCR4; Stromal Cells; Tumor Burden; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
We previously identified the chemokine receptor CCR4 as part of the molecular signature of melanoma brain metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the functional significance of CCR4 in melanoma brain metastasis. We show that CCR4 is more highly expressed by brain metastasizing melanoma cells than by local cutaneous cells from the same melanoma. Moreover, we found that the expression of CCR4 is significantly higher in paired clinical specimens of melanoma metastases than in samples of primary tumors from the same patients. Notably, the expression of the CCR4 ligands, Ccl22 and Ccl17 is upregulated at the earliest stages of brain metastasis, and precedes the infiltration of melanoma cells to the brain. In-vitro, CCL17 induced migration and transendothelial migration of melanoma cells. Functionally, human melanoma cells over-expressing CCR4 were more tumorigenic and produced a higher load of spontaneous brain micrometastasis than control cells. Blocking CCR4 with a small molecule CCR4 antagonist in-vivo, reduced the tumorigenicity and micrometastasis formation of melanoma cells. Taken together, these findings implicate CCR4 as a driver of melanoma brain metastasis.
Neurosciences (Brain & Spine)
Klein, Anat; Sagi-Assif, Orit; Meshel, Tsipi; Telerman, Alona; Izraely, Sivan; Ben-Menachem, Shlomit; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Marzese, Diego M; Ohe, Shuichi; Hoon, Dave S B; Erez, Neta; and Witz, Isaac P, "CCR4 is a determinant of melanoma brain metastasis." (2017). Articles, Abstracts, and Reports. 1534.