Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair; Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is most commonly defined as a maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta in excess of 3 cm in either anterior-posterior or transverse planes or, alternatively, as a focal dilation ≥ 1.5 times the diameter of the normal adjacent arterial segment. Risk factors for the development of AAA include age > 60, tobacco use, male gender, Caucasian race, and family history of AAA. Aneurysm growth and rupture risk appear to be associated with persistent tobacco use, female gender, and chronic pulmonary disease. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and detected incidentally on various imaging studies, including abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Symptoms associated with AAA may include abdominal or back pain, thromboembolization, atheroembolization, aortic rupture, or development of an arteriovenous or aortoenteric fistula. The Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Efficiently (SAAAVE) Act provides coverage for a one-time screening abdominal ultrasound at age 65 for men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and women who have family history of AAA disease. Medical management is recommended for asymptomatic patients with AAAs < 5 cm in diameter and focuses on modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation and blood pressure control. Primary indications for intervention in patients with AAA include development of symptoms, rupture, rapid aneurysm growth (> 5 mm/6 months), or presence of a fusiform aneurysm with maximum diameter of 5.5 cm or greater. Intervention for AAA includes conventional open surgical repair and endovascular aortic stent graft repair.
Abdom Radiol (NY)
Ullery, Brant W; Hallett, Richard L; and Fleischmann, Dominik, "Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms." (2018). All Publications. 110.