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Submissions from 2021

Opsoclonus After COVID-19 in an Infant., Darion L Heald, Irisa M Devine, Roderic L Smith, Sarah A T Holsopple, Jessica L Arasmith, and Robert W Arnold

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Depression and Anxiety Management in Parkinson Disease., Haily Ho, Isabel Jose, Molly Cheesman, Christina Garrison, Krista Bishop, Samantha Taber, Jennifer Witt, and Mo-Kyung Sin

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Improvement in some Ames-ISSG cervical deformity classification modifier grades may correlate with clinical improvement., Samantha R Horn, Peter G Passias, Lara Passfall, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Gregory W Poorman, Leah M Steinmetz, Cole A Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Bassel Diebo, Robert Hart, Douglas Burton, Christopher I Shaffrey, Daniel M Sciubba, Eric O Klineberg, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Healthcare utilization and cost outcomes for a multicenter first seizure and new onset epilepsy clinic., Emily R Hudson, Alexandra Lesko, Lindsay Lucas, Elizabeth Baraban, and Evan J Fertig

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The Young Neurosurgeons Committee of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons: the first 30 years., Sakibul Huq, Chris A Philips, Walavan Sivakumar, David L Dornbos, Christopher S Graffeo, Debraj Mukherjee, Stacey Q Wolfe, and Jeremiah N Johnson

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Supporting Equity and Inclusion of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Individuals in Professional Organizations., Julia Jones Huyck, Kelsey L Anbuhl, Brad N Buran, Henry J Adler, Samuel R Atcherson, Ozan Cakmak, Robert T Dwyer, Morgan Eddolls, Fadhel El May, Juergen-Theodor Fraenzer, Rebekah Funkhouser, Mathilde Gagliardini, Frederick J Gallun, Raymond L Goldsworthy, Samir Gouin, Joseph Heng, Ariel Edward Hight, Zina Jawadi, Damir Kovacic, Rachit Kumar, Santosh Kumar, Stacey R Lim, Chengeng Mo, Lisa S Nolan, Alexandra Parbery-Clark, Dominic V Pisano, Valluri R Rao, Robert M Raphael, Lina A J Reiss, Nathaniel J Spencer, Stephen J Tang, Viral D Tejani, Emma D Tran, Mikaeel Valli, Greg D Watkins, Rachel V Wayne, Lindsey R Wheeler, Stephanie L White, Victor Wong, M Caroline Yuk, J Tilak Ratnanather, and Peter S Steyger

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Resilience and Dementia, Nancy B. Isenberg

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Comparing Combined Anterior and Posterior to Posterior-Only Decompression and Fusion Crossing the Cervico-Thoracic Junction in Octogenarians., Basem Ishak, Amir Abdul-Jabbar, Alexander von Glinski, Emre Yilmaz, Andreas W Unterberg, Sarah Hopkins, Jeffrey R Roh, Rod J Oskouian, Robert A Hart, and Jens R Chapman

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A novel anatomo-physiologic high-grade spondylolisthesis model to evaluate L5 nerve stretch injury after spondylolisthesis reduction., Basem Ishak, Clifford A Pierre, Darius Ansari, Stefan Lachkar, Alexander von Glinski, Andreas W Unterberg, Rod J Oskouian, and Jens R Chapman

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Morbidity and Mortality in Patients over 90 Years of Age Following Posterior Stabilization for Acute Traumatic Odontoid Type II Fractures: A Retrospective Study with a Mean Follow-Up of Three Years., Mohammed Issa, Karl L Kiening, Andreas W Unterberg, Moritz Scherer, Alexander Younsi, Stepan Fedorko, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman, and Basem Ishak

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The Effects of Cardiorespiratory and Motor Skill Fitness on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Neural Networks in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease., Behnaz Jarrahi, Sarah C McEwen, Daniel P Holschneider, Dawn M Schiehser, Andrew J Petkus, Megan E Gomez, Jack D Van Horn, Vincent Filoteo, Michael W Jakowec, and Giselle M Petzinger

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Plexin-B2 orchestrates collective stem cell dynamics via actomyosin contractility, cytoskeletal tension and adhesion., Chrystian Junqueira Alves, Rafael Dariolli, Jonathan Haydak, Sangjo Kang, Theodore Hannah, Robert J Wiener, Stefanie DeFronzo, Rut Tejero, Gabriele L Gusella, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Rodrigo Alves Dias, Alexandre Wojcinski, Santosh Kesari, Li Shen, Eric A Sobie, José Paulo Rodrigues Furtado de Mendonça, Evren U Azeloglu, Hongyan Zou, and Roland H Friedel

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Signature morpho-electric, transcriptomic, and dendritic properties of human layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons., Brian E Kalmbach, Rebecca D Hodge, Nikolas L Jorstad, Scott Owen, Rebecca de Frates, Anna Marie Yanny, Rachel Dalley, Matt Mallory, Lucas T Graybuck, Cristina Radaelli, C Dirk Keene, Ryder P Gwinn, Daniel L Silbergeld, Charles Cobbs, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Andrew L Ko, Anoop P Patel, Richard G Ellenbogen, Trygve E Bakken, Tanya L Daigle, Nick Dee, Brian R Lee, Medea McGraw, Philip R Nicovich, Kimberly Smith, Staci A Sorensen, Bosiljka Tasic, Hongkui Zeng, Christof Koch, Ed S Lein, and Jonathan T Ting

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Standardizing fatigue measurement in multiple sclerosis: the validity, responsiveness and score interpretation of the PROMIS SF v1.0 - Fatigue (MS) 8a., Paul Kamudoni, Jeffrey Johns, Karon F Cook, Rana Salem, Sam Salek, Jana Raab, Rod Middleton, Christian Henke, Pavle Repovic, Kevin Alschuler, Gloria von Geldern, Annette Wundes, and Dagmar Amtmann

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Safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 5-year open-label study (EXTEND): final results following early termination., Ludwig Kappos, Stanley Cohan, Douglas L Arnold, Randy R Robinson, Joan Holman, Sami Fam, Becky Parks, Shan Xiao, and Wanda Castro-Borrero

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates UV/endorphin and opioid addiction., Lajos V Kemény, Kathleen C Robinson, Andrea L Hermann, Deena M Walker, Susan Regan, Yik Weng Yew, Yi Chun Lai, Nicholas Theodosakis, Phillip D Rivera, Weihua Ding, Liuyue Yang, Tobias Beyer, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Jennifer A Lo, Anita A J van der Sande, William Sarnie, David Kotler, Jennifer J Hsiao, Mack Y Su, Shinichiro Kato, Joseph Kotler, Staci D Bilbo, Vanita Chopra, Matthew P Salomon, Shiqian Shen, Dave S B Hoon, Maryam M Asgari, Sarah E Wakeman, Eric J Nestler, and David E Fisher

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Correction to: Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of severe COVID-19., Santosh Kesari, Gregory C Kasper, Lev Verkh, Terese C Hammond, Marla L Matal, Jay W Hammerling, Nikolai Tankovich, Adrianus P Lim, Kevin H Zhao, Tiffany Juarez, Roberta E Redfern, Jaya Mini Gill, Natsuko Nomura, Audrey Hiemer, Annie Heng, and Jessica Shoemaker

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Burnout among medical students interested in neurosurgery during the COVID-19 era., Adham M Khalafallah, Adrian E Jimenez, Shravika Lam, Abhishek Gami, David L Dornbos, Walavan Sivakumar, Jeremiah N Johnson, and Debraj Mukherjee

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A Retrospective Evaluation and Review of Outcomes for Single- and Multilevel ACDF With a Zero-Profile Stand-Alone Cage Device With Integrated Instrumentation., Kareem Khalifeh, Jordan E Faulkner, Junko Hara, and Burak Ozgur

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MRI brain volume loss, lesion burden, and clinical outcome in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis., Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, Pavle Repovic, James D Bowen, Eva Strijbis, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Smoking, obesity, and disability worsening in PPMS: an analysis of the INFORMS original trial dataset., Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, Pavle Repovic, James D Bowen, Eva Strijbis, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Is the Symbol Digit Modalities Test a useful outcome in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis?, Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, P Repovic, J D Bowen, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Early first-line treatment response and subsequent disability worsening in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis., Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, P Repovic, J D Bowen, Jerry S Wolinsky, Fred D Lublin, Eva Strijbis, and Gary Cutter

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Orbital Surgical Guidelines-Clinical Evaluation., Howard Krauss

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A randomized evaluation of the TriGuard™ HDH cerebral embolic protection device to Reduce the Impact of Cerebral Embolic LEsions after TransCatheter Aortic Valve ImplanTation: the REFLECT I trial., Alexandra J Lansky, Rajendra Makkar, Tamim Nazif, Steven Messé, John Forrest, Rahul Sharma, Joachim Schofer, Axel Linke, David Brown, Abhijeet Dhoble, Phillip Horwitz, Ming Zang, Frederico DeMarco, Vivek Rajagopal, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov, Pieter Stella, Joshua Rovin, Helen Parise, Susheel Kodali, Andreas Baumbach, Jeffrey Moses, and REFLECT I Trial Investigators

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Association Between Cataract Extraction and Development of Dementia., Cecilia S Lee, Laura E Gibbons, Aaron Y Lee, Ryan T Yanagihara, Marian S Blazes, Michael L Lee, Susan M McCurry, J D Bowen, Wayne C McCormick, Paul K Crane, and Eric B Larson

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Associations Between Retinal Artery/Vein Occlusions and Risk of Vascular Dementia., Cecilia S Lee, Michael L Lee, Laura E Gibbons, Ryan T Yanagihara, Marian Blazes, Jason P Kam, Susan M McCurry, J D Bowen, Wayne C McCormick, Aaron Y Lee, Eric B Larson, and Paul K Crane

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Brain volume change after high-dose immunosuppression and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis., Hyunwoo Lee, Kunio Nakamura, Sridar Narayanan, Robert A Brown, Richard A Nash, Linda M Griffith, Kaitlyn C Steinmiller, Steven M Devine, George J Hutton, Uday Popat, Michael K Racke, George E Georges, James D Bowen, and Douglas L Arnold

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Cordycepin inhibits the proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells through the p53/Sp1/tubulin pathway., Ming-Jen Lee, Jen-Chieh Lee, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, May-Yao Lin, I-An Shih, Huey-Ling You, and Kai Wang

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Modulating innate immune activation states impacts the efficacy of specific Aβ immunotherapy., Yona Levites, Cory Funk, Xue Wang, Paramita Chakrabarty, Karen N McFarland, Baxter Bramblett, Veronica O'Neal, Xufei Liu, Thomas Ladd, Max Robinson, Mariet Allen, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Dennis Dickson, Pedro Cruz, Danny Ryu, Hong-Dong Li, Nathan D Price, NIlüfer Ertekin-Taner, and Todd E Golde

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Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Score as a Predictor of Outcome in Patients Without Traumatic Brain Injury., Amy Li, Folefac D Atem, Aardhra M Venkatachalam, Arianna Barnes, Sonja E Stutzman, and DaiWai M Olson

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Integrative functional genomic analysis of intron retention in human and mouse brain with Alzheimer's disease., Hong-Dong Li, Cory C Funk, Karen McFarland, Eric B Dammer, Mariet Allen, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Yona Levites, Paramita Chakrabarty, Jeremy D Burgess, Xue Wang, Dennis Dickson, Nicholas T Seyfried, Duc M Duong, James J Lah, Steven G Younkin, Allan I Levey, Gilbert S Omenn, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Todd E Golde, and Nathan D Price

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Measurements of Functional Network Connectivity Using Resting State Arterial Spin Labeling During Neurosurgery., Thomas Lindner, Hajrullah Ahmeti, Michael Helle, Olav Jansen, Jens Fiehler, Lasse Dührsen, Michael Synowitz, Santosh Kesari, and Stephan Ulmer

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Pregnancy outcomes of refractory epilepsy patients treated with Brain-responsive neurostimulation., Yi Li, Dawn Eliashiv, Sara C LaHue, Vikram R Rao, Michael L Martini, Fedor Panov, Joel M Oster, June Yoshii-Contreras, Christopher T Skidmore, Laura A Kalayjian, David Millett, and Kimford J Meador

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Early Experience With Virtual and Synchronized Augmented Reality Platform for Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Navigation: A Case Series., Robert G Louis, Gary K Steinberg, Christopher Duma, Gavin Britz, Vivek Mehta, Jonathan Pace, Warren Selman, and Walter C Jean

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Changes in Angioarchitecture After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula., Benton Maglinger, M Maher Hulou, Christopher J McLouth, Madison Sands, Damodar Pokhrel, William H St Clair, Stephen Grupke, and Justin F Fraser

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Intracranial VCAM1 at time of mechanical thrombectomy predicts ischemic stroke severity., Benton Maglinger, Madison Sands, Jacqueline A Frank, Christopher J McLouth, Amanda L Trout, Jill M Roberts, Stephen Grupke, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Ann M Stowe, Justin F Fraser, and Keith R Pennypacker

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Treatment of Dementia With Bosutinib: An Open-Label Study of a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor., Kennedy D Mahdavi, Sheldon E Jordan, Hannah R Barrows, Maša Pravdic, Barshen Habelhah, Natalie E Evans, Robin B Blades, Jessica J Iovine, Sergio A Becerra, Rachel A Steiner, Marisa Chang, Santosh Kesari, Alexander Bystritsky, Ed O'Connor, Hyman Gross, F Scott Pereles, Mike Whitney, and Taylor Kuhn

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Streamlining brain tumor surgery care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case-control study., Regin Jay Mallari, Michael B Avery, Alex Corlin, Amalia Eisenberg, Terese C Hammond, Neil A Martin, Garni Barkhoudarian, and Daniel F Kelly

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Endoscopic Endonasal and Supraorbital Removal of Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas: Anatomic Guides and Operative Nuances for Keyhole Approach Selection., Regin Jay Mallari, Jai Deep Thakur, John H Rhee, Amalia Eisenberg, Howard Krauss, Chester Griffiths, Walavan Sivakumar, Garni Barkhoudarian, and Daniel F Kelly

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A systems-biology clinical trial of a personalized multimodal lifestyle intervention for early Alzheimer's disease., Sarah C McEwen, David A Merrill, Jennifer Bramen, Verna Porter, Stella Panos, Scott Kaiser, John Hodes, Aarthi Ganapathi, Lesley Bell, Tess Bookheimer, Ryan Glatt, Molly Rapozo, Mary Kay Ross, Nathan D Price, Daniel Kelly, Cory C Funk, Leroy Hood, and Jared C Roach

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Microglia show differential transcriptomic response to Aβ peptide aggregates ex vivo and in vivo., Karen N McFarland, Carolina Ceballos, Awilda Rosario, Thomas Ladd, Brenda Moore, Griffin Golde, Xue Wang, Mariet Allen, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Cory C Funk, Max Robinson, Priyanka Baloni, Noa Rappaport, Paramita Chakrabarty, and Todd E Golde

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Safety of the APOLLO Onyx delivery microcatheter for embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: results from a prospective post-market study., Philip M Meyers, Johanna T Fifi, Kevin M Cockroft, Timothy R Miller, Curtis A Given, Ali R Zomorodi, Bharathi D Jagadeesan, Maxim Mokin, Peter Kan, Tom L Yao, Orlando Diaz, Daniel Huddle, Richard J Bellon, Joshua Seinfeld, Adam J Polifka, David Fiorella, Rohan V Chitale, Peter Kvamme, Jay T Morrow, Justin Singer, Ajay K Wakhloo, Ajit S Puri, Vivek Deshmukh, Ricardo A Hanel, L Fernando Gonzalez, Henry H Woo, and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan

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Quantitative MRI Differences Between Early versus Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease., Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji, David A Merrill, Verna R Porter, and Mario F Mendez

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Functional enhancer elements drive subclass-selective expression from mouse to primate neocortex., John K Mich, Lucas T Graybuck, Erik E Hess, Joseph T Mahoney, Yoshiko Kojima, Yi Ding, Saroja Somasundaram, Jeremy A Miller, Brian E Kalmbach, Cristina Radaelli, Bryan B Gore, Natalie Weed, Victoria Omstead, Yemeserach Bishaw, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Refugio A Martinez, Olivia Fong, Shenqin Yao, Marty Mortrud, Peter Chong, Luke Loftus, Darren Bertagnolli, Jeff Goldy, Tamara Casper, Nick Dee, Ximena Opitz-Araya, Ali Cetin, Kimberly A Smith, Ryder P Gwinn, Charles Cobbs, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, C Dirk Keene, Daniel L Silbergeld, Susan M Sunkin, Viviana Gradinaru, Gregory D Horwitz, Hongkui Zeng, Bosiljka Tasic, Ed S Lein, Jonathan T Ting, and Boaz P Levi

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Fenfluramine in the successful treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus in a patient with Dravet syndrome., David Millett and Suzanne Pach

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Association of Performance on Dichotic Auditory Tests With Risk for Incident Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia., Adeeb Mohammed, Laura E Gibbons, George Gates, Melissa L Anderson, Susan M McCurry, Wayne McCormick, J D Bowen, Thomas J Grabowski, Paul K Crane, and Eric B Larson

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Identification of successful cerebral reperfusions (mTICI ≥2b) using an artificial intelligence strategy., Gabriel Neves, Pranav Warman, Tulio Bueso, Walter Duarte-Celada, and Thomas Windisch

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Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) in trauma patients may identify common quality problems., Matthias Niemeier, Uwe Hamsen, Emre Yilmaz, Thomas A Schildhauer, and Christian Waydhas

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Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care., Raul G Nogueira, Mohamad Abdalkader, Muhammed M Qureshi, Michael R Frankel, Ossama Yassin Mansour, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Mehdi Farhoudi, James E Siegler, Shadi Yaghi, Eytan Raz, Nobuyuki Sakai, Nobuyuki Ohara, Michel Piotin, Laura Mechtouff, Omer Eker, Vanessa Chalumeau, Timothy J Kleinig, Raoul Pop, Jianmin Liu, Hugh S Winters, Xianjin Shang, Alejandro Rodriguez Vasquez, Jordi Blasco, Juan F Arenillas, Mario Martinez-Galdamez, Alex Brehm, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Pedro Lylyk, Diogo C Haussen, Alhamza R Al-Bayati, Mahmoud H Mohammaden, Luísa Fonseca, M Luís Silva, Francisco Montalverne, Leonardo Renieri, Salvatore Mangiafico, Urs Fischer, Jan Gralla, Donald Frei, Chandril Chugh, Brijesh P Mehta, Simon Nagel, Markus Mohlenbruch, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Mudassir Farooqui, Ameer E Hassan, Allan Taylor, Bertrand Lapergue, Arturo Consoli, Bruce Cv Campbell, Malveeka Sharma, Melanie Walker, Noel Van Horn, Jens Fiehler, Huy Thang Nguyen, Quoc T Nguyen, Daisuke Watanabe, Hao Zhang, Huynh V Le, Viet Q Nguyen, Ruchir Shah, Thomas Devlin, Priyank Khandelwal, Italo Linfante, Wazim Izzath, Pablo M Lavados, Veronica V Olavarría, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Anna Verena de Carvalho Sousa, Jawad Kirmani, Martin Bendszus, Tatsuo Amano, Ryoo Yamamoto, Ryosuke Doijiri, Naoki Tokuda, Takehiro Yamada, Tadashi Terasaki, Yukako Yazawa, Jane G Morris, Emma Griffin, John Thornton, Pascale Lavoie, Charles Matouk, Michael D Hill, Andrew M Demchuk, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer, Fadi Nahab, Dorothea Altschul, Anna Ramos-Pachón, Natalia Pérez de la Ossa, Raghid Kikano, William Boisseau, Gregory Walker, Steve M Cordina, Ajit Puri, Anna Luisa Kuhn, Dheeraj Gandhi, Pankajavalli Ramakrishnan, Roberta Novakovic-White, Alex Chebl, Odysseas Kargiotis, Alexandra Czap, Alicia Zha, Hesham E Masoud, Carlos Lopez, David Ozretic, Fawaz Al-Mufti, Wenjie Zie, Zhenhui Duan, Zhengzhou Yuan, Wenguo Huang, Yonggang Hao, Jun Luo, Vladimir Kalousek, Romain Bourcier, Romain Guile, Steven Hetts, Hosam M Al-Jehani, Adel AlHazzani, Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Mohamed Teleb, Jeremy Payne, Jin Soo Lee, Ji Man Hong, Sung-Il Sohn, Yang-Ha Hwang, Dong Hoon Shin, Hong Gee Roh, Randy Edgell, Rakesh Khatri, Ainsley Smith, Amer Malik, David Liebeskind, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Pedro Magalhaes, Atilla Ozcan Ozdemir, Ozlem Aykac, Takeshi Uwatoko, Tomohisa Dembo, Hisao Shimizu, Yuri Sugiura, Fumio Miyashita, Hiroki Fukuda, Kosuke Miyake, Junsuke Shimbo, Yusuke Sugimura, Andre Beer-Furlan, Krishna Joshi, Luciana Catanese, Daniel Giansante Abud, Octavio Giansante Neto, Masoud Mehrpour, Amal Al Hashmi, Mahar Saqqur, Abdulrahman Mostafa, Johanna T Fifi, Syed Hussain, Seby John, Rishi Gupta, Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann, Anna Reznik, Achmad Fidaus Sani, Serdar Geyik, Eşref Akıl, Anchalee Churojana, Abdoreza Ghoreishi, Mohammad Saadatnia, Ehsan Sharifipour, Alice Ma, Ken Faulder, Teddy Wu, Lester Leung, Adel Malek, Barbara Voetsch, Ajay Wakhloo, Rodrigo Rivera, Danny Moises Barrientos Iman, Aleksandra Pikula, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Gotz Thomalla, Lee Birnbaum, Paolo Machi, Gianmarco Bernava, Mollie McDermott, Dawn Kleindorfer, Ken Wong, Mary S Patterson, Jose Antonio Fiorot, Vikram Huded, William Mack, Matthew Tenser, Clifford Eskey, Sumeet Multani, Michael Kelly, Vallabh Janardhan, Oriana Cornett, Varsha Singh, Yuichi Murayama, Maxim Mokin, Pengfei Yang, Xiaoxi Zhang, Congguo Yin, Hongxing Han, Ya Peng, Wenhuo Chen, Roberto Crosa, Michel Eli Frudit, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Anirudh Kulkarni, Yoshiki Yagita, Yohei Takenobu, Yuji Matsumaru, Satoshi Yamada, Ryuhei Kono, Takuya Kanamaru, Hidekazu Yamazaki, Manabu Sakaguchi, Kenichi Todo, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Kazutaka Sonoda, Tomoko Yoshida, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Ichiro Nakahara, Elena Cora, David Volders, Celina Ducroux, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Johanna Ospel, Artem Kaliaev, Saima Ahmed, Umair Rashid, Leticia C Rebello, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Robert Fahed, Michael Chen, Sunil A Sheth, Lina Palaiodimou, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Ronil Chandra, Feliks Koyfman, Thomas Leung, Houman Khosravani, Sushrut Dharmadhikari, Giovanni Frisullo, Paolo Calabresi, Alexander Tsiskaridze, Nino Lobjanidze, Mikayel Grigoryan, Anna Czlonkowska, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Helmi L Lutsep, Óscar Ayo-Martín, Antonio Cruz-Culebras, Anh D Tran, Chang Y Young, Charlotte Cordonnier, Francois Caparros, Maria Alonso De Lecinana, Blanca Fuentes, Dileep Yavagal, Tudor Jovin, Laurent Spelle, Jacques Moret, Pooja Khatri, Osama Zaidat, Jean Raymond, Sheila Martins, and Thanh Nguyen

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Incidence, Management, and Outcomes of Adult Spinal Chondrosarcoma Patients in the United States., Ravi S Nunna, Saavan Patel, Shashank N Patil, Darius Ansari, Taylor G Burch, Ankit I Mehta, Jens R Chapman, and Rod J Oskouian

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Anisocoria Correlates With Injury Severity and Outcomes After Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury., Daniel Nyancho, Folefac D Atem, Aardhra M Venkatachalam, Arianna Barnes, Michelle Hill, Jeffrey I Traylor, Sonja E Stutzman, Nicole Bedros, Venkatesh Aiyagari, and Salah G Aoun

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Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuromyelitis Optica., Frederike Cosima Oertel, Svenja Specovius, Hanna G Zimmermann, Claudia Chien, Seyedamirhosein Motamedi, Charlotte Bereuter, Lawrence Cook, Marco Aurélio Lana Peixoto, Mariana Andrade Fontanelle, Ho Jin Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, Jacqueline Palace, Adriana Roca-Fernandez, Maria Isabel Leite, Srilakshmi Sharma, Fereshteh Ashtari, Rahele Kafieh, Alireza Dehghani, Mohsen Pourazizi, Lekha Pandit, Anitha D'Cunha, Orhan Aktas, Marius Ringelstein, Philipp Albrecht, Eugene May, Caryl Tongco, Letizia Leocani, Marco Pisa, Marta Radaelli, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Hadas Stiebel-Kalish, Sasitorn Siritho, Jérome de Seze, Thomas Senger, Joachim Havla, Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo-Calvo, Denis Bichuetti, Ivan Maynart Tavares, Nasrin Asgari, Kerstin Soelberg, Ayse Altintas, Rengin Yildirim, Uygur Tanriverdi, Anu Jacob, Saif Huda, Zoe Rimler, Allyson Reid, Yang Mao-Draayer, Ibis Soto de Castillo, Axel Petzold, Ari J Green, Michael R Yeaman, Terry Smith, Alexander U Brandt, and Friedemann Paul

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Single Cell Scale Neuronal and Glial Gene Expression and Putative Cell Phenotypes and Networks in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius in an Alcohol Withdrawal Time Series., Sean J O'Sullivan, Damani McIntosh-Clarke, James H Park, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, and James S Schwaber

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Abstract P77: Acute Stroke Trends and Outcomes During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Multi-System Hospital System in the Western US, Renee Ovando, Natalie Swearingen, Tamela Stuchiner, Leslie Corless, Crystal Ann Moreno, John Zurasky, Jason Tarpley, Radoslav Raychev, and Elizabeth Baraban

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COVID-19 Impact on Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment at 9 Comprehensive Stroke Centers across Los Angeles., M Maximillian Padrick, Navdeep Sangha, Laurie Paletz, James Mirocha, Sonia Figueroa, Vicki Manoukian, Konrad Schlick, Patrick D Lyden, David S Liebeskind, Fiona K Chatfield, Jason W Tarpley, Adrian Burgos, Matthew Tenser, Denise Gaffney, Marco A Pech, Edward Nazareth, Robert Jackson, Helaine Kauffman, Lisa Arnold, Jennifer Cox, Treasure Joyce, Catrice Nakamura, Darcie Fitzgerald, Kyle Ogami, Nili Steiner, Nicole Wolber, Betty Robertson, Rachel Izzo, Stefanie Gorski, Heather Manuel, Krystal Valdez, Liliana Reyes, Latisha K Sharma, and Shlee S Song

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Does glucose influence multidien cycles of interictal and/or ictal activities?, Alexa Pappas, Sanjay Kubsad, Maxime O Baud, Kyla E Wright, Devon M Kollmyer, Nicole M Warner, Alan M Haltiner, Ryder P Gwinn, and Michael J Doherty

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A Systems Approach to Brain Tumor Treatment., James H Park, Adrian Lopez Garcia de Lomana, Diego M Marzese, Tiffany Juarez, Abdullah Feroze, Parvinder Hothi, Charles Cobbs, Anoop P Patel, Santosh Kesari, Sui Huang, and Nitin S Baliga

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Increasing Cost Efficiency in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Identifying Predictors of Lower Total Costs., Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole Bortz, Haddy Alas, Katherine Pierce, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Lawal A Labaran, Christopher Ames, Douglas C Burton, Jeffrey Gum, Robert Hart, Richard Hostin, Khaled M Kebaish, Brian J Neuman, Shay Bess, Breton Line, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin Smith, Frank Schwab, Eric Klineberg, and International Spine Study Group

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A Risk Benefit Analysis of Increasing Surgical Invasiveness Relative to Frailty Status in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery., Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole Bortz, Katherine Pierce, Haddy Alas, Waleed Ahmad, Lara Passfall, Nicholas Kummer, Oscar Krol, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Douglas Burton, Robert A Hart, Neel Anand, Gregory Mundis, Brian Neuman, Breton Line, Christopher Shaffrey, Eric Klineberg, Justin Smith, Christopher Ames, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, and International Spine Study Group

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Predicting development of severe clinically relevant distal junctional kyphosis following adult cervical deformity surgery, with further distinction from mild asymptomatic episodes., Peter G Passias, Sara Naessig, Nicholas Kummer, Lara Passfall, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Breton Line, Bassel G Diebo, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Han Jo Kim, Robert Eastlack, Alex Soroceanu, Eric O Klineberg, Robert A Hart, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, and Christopher P Ames

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At What Point Should the Thoracolumbar Region Be Addressed in Patients Undergoing Corrective Cervical Deformity Surgery?, Peter G Passias, Katherine E Pierce, Sara Naessig, Waleed Ahmad, Lara Passfall, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Han Jo Kim, Alan Daniels, Robert Eastlack, Eric Klineberg, Breton Line, Praveen Mummaneni, Robert A Hart, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, Christopher P Ames, and International Spine Study Group

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The impact of postoperative neurologic complications on recovery kinetics in cervical deformity surgery., Peter Gust Passias, Avery E Brown, Haddy Alas, Katherine E Pierce, Cole A Bortz, Bassel Diebo, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Han Jo Kim, Shay Bess, Kevin Moattari, Rachel Joujon-Roche, Oscar Krol, Tyler Williamson, Peter Tretiakov, Bailey Imbo, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Christopher Shaffrey, Frank Schwab, Robert Eastlack, Breton Line, Eric Klineberg, Justin Smith, Christopher Ames, and International Spine Study Group

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Effect of age-adjusted alignment goals and distal inclination angle on the fate of distal junctional kyphosis in cervical deformity surgery., Peter Gust Passias, Samantha R Horn, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, Cole Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Katherine E Pierce, Avery E Brown, Haddy Alas, Han Jo Kim, Alan H Daniels, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Christopher P Ames, and International Spine Study Group

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Predictive model for achieving good clinical and radiographic outcomes at one-year following surgical correction of adult cervical deformity., Peter Gust Passias, Samantha R Horn, Cheongeun Oh, Gregory W Poorman, Cole Bortz, Frank Segreto, Renaud Lafage, Bassel Diebo, Justin K Scheer, Justin S Smith, Christopher I Shaffrey, Robert Eastlack, Daniel M Sciubba, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Han Jo Kim, Robert A Hart, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P Ames, and International Spine Study Group

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Risk-benefit assessment of major versus minor osteotomies for flexible and rigid cervical deformity correction., Peter Gust Passias, Lara Passfall, Samantha R Horn, Katherine E Pierce, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Gregory M Mundis, Robert Eastlack, Bassel G Diebo, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Han Jo Kim, Justin Scheer, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher P Ames, Christopher I Shaffrey, and International Spine Study Group

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Redefining cervical spine deformity classification through novel cutoffs: An assessment of the relationship between radiographic parameters and functional neurological outcomes., Peter Gust Passias, Katherine E Pierce, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Breton Line, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert Hart, Alan H Daniels, Shay Bess, Bassel Diebo, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Robert Eastlack, Christopher I Shaffrey, Frank J Schwab, Justin S Smith, Christopher Ames, and On Behalf Of The International Spine Study Group

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Anticoagulation Therapy Reduces Recurrent Stroke in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source Patients With Elevated Coagulation Markers or Severe Left Atrial Enlargement., Kishan Patel, Elio Mikhael, Michael Liu, Srikant Rangaraju, Deandra Ellis, Alexander Duncan, Samir Belagaje, Trina Belair, Laura Henriquez, and Fadi Nahab

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Perioperative dual antiplatelet therapy for patients undergoing spine surgery soon after drug eluting stent placement., Sophie M Peeters, Daniel Nagasawa, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Tianyi Niu, Alexander Tucker, Mark Attiah, Diana Babayan, Natalie Moreland, Isaac Yang, Marcela Calfon Press, and Luke Macyszyn

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Effect of High-frequency (10-kHz) Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Erika A Petersen, Thomas G Stauss, James A Scowcroft, Elizabeth S Brooks, Judith L White, Shawn M Sills, Kasra Amirdelfan, Maged N Guirguis, Jijun Xu, Cong Yu, Ali Nairizi, Denis G Patterson, Kostandinos C Tsoulfas, Michael J Creamer, Vincent Galan, Richard H Bundschu, Christopher A Paul, Neel D Mehta, Heejung Choi, Dawood Sayed, Shivanand P Lad, David J DiBenedetto, Khalid A Sethi, Johnathan H Goree, Matthew T Bennett, Nathan J Harrison, Atef F Israel, Paul Chang, Paul W Wu, Gennady Gekht, Charles E Argoff, Christian E Nasr, Rod S Taylor, Jeyakumar Subbaroyan, Bradford E Gliner, David L Caraway, and Nagy A Mekhail

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Predictors of Superior Recovery Kinetics in Adult Cervical Deformity Correction: An Analysis Using a Novel Area Under the Curve Methodology., Katherine E Pierce, Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Kojo Hamilton, Jeffrey Gum, Justin Scheer, Alan Daniels, Shay Bess, Alex Soroceanu, Eric Klineberg, Christopher Shaffrey, Breton Line, Frank A Schwab, Justin S Smith, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Prioritization of Realignment Associated With Superior Clinical Outcomes for Cervical Deformity Patients., Katherine E Pierce, Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Lara Passfall, Oscar Krol, Nicholas Kummer, Renaud Lafage, Dean Chou, Douglas C Burton, Breton Line, Eric Klineberg, Robert A Hart, Jeffrey Gum, Alan Daniels, Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Christopher Shaffrey, Frank A Schwab, Justin S Smith, Virginie Lafage, and Christopher Ames

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Baseline Frailty Status Influences Recovery Patterns and Outcomes Following Alignment Correction of Cervical Deformity., Katherine E Pierce, Peter G Passias, Alan H Daniels, Renaud Lafage, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Virginie Lafage, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Robert Eastlack, Robert A Hart, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, and Christopher Ames

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Prioritization of realignment associated with superior clinical outcomes for surgical cervical deformity patients., Katherine E Pierce, Peter Gust Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Oscar Krol, Dean Chou, Douglas C Burton, Breton Line, Eric Klineberg, Robert A Hart, Jeffrey Gum, Alan Daniels, Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Christopher Shaffrey, Frank A Schwab, Justin S Smith, Virginie Lafage, and Christopher Ames

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Glioma Stem Cells as Immunotherapeutic Targets: Advancements and Challenges., Keenan J Piper, Lisa DePledge, Michael Karsy, and Charles Cobbs

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Cervical Total Disc Replacement: Complications and Complication Avoidance., Richard L Price, Domagoj Coric, and Wilson Z Ray

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Surgical outcomes in rigid versus flexible cervical deformities., Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Nicholas Stekas, Justin S Smith, Alexandra Soroceanu, Renaud Lafage, Alan H Daniels, Han Jo Kim, Peter G Passias, Gregory M Mundis, Eric O Klineberg, D Kojo Hamilton, Munish Gupta, Virginie Lafage, Robert A Hart, Frank Schwab, Douglas C Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, and Christopher P Ames

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Pulse Dosing of 10 kHz Paresthesia-Independent Spinal Cord Stimulation Provides Same Efficacy with Substantial Reduction of Device Recharge Time., David Provenzano, Jordan Tate, Mayank Gupta, Cong Yu, Paul Verrills, Maged Guirguis, Nathan Harrison, Thomas Smith, Rose Azalde, and Kerry Bradley

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Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Classification Systems: What Is Available and a Proposed Alternative., Wyatt L Ramey and Jens R Chapman

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The lexicon of multirod constructs in adult spinal deformity: a concise description of when, why, and how., Wyatt L Ramey, Andrew S Jack, and Jens R Chapman

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The Intradiscal Osteotomy: An Alternative Technique for Adult Spinal Deformity Correction., Wyatt L Ramey, Andrew S Jack, Rod J Oskouian, Robert A Hart, and Jens R Chapman

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The Central Cord Score: A Novel Classification and Scoring System Specific to Acute Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome., Wyatt L Ramey, Angelica Alvarez Reyes, Mauricio J Avila, R John Hurlbert, Jens R Chapman, and Travis M Dumont

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Cortical Responses to Vagus Nerve Stimulation Are Modulated by Brain State in Nonhuman Primates., Irene Rembado, Weiguo Song, David K Su, Ariel Levari, Larry E Shupe, Steve Perlmutter, Eberhard Fetz, and Stavros Zanos

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Response to: "The Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6" Commentary by Rowland et al., Zubir Rentiya, Robert Hutnik, and Junun Bae

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UW Project ECHO-Dementia: Implementation of a virtual clinic and telementoring program to improve dementia diagnosis and treatment in rural and under-resourced primary care settings., Kristoffer Rhoads, Nancy B. Isenberg, and Allyson Schrier

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Correction to: Clinical feasibility of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis., Neil H Riordan, Isabela Morales, Giselle Fernández, Nicole Allen, Neal E Fearnot, Michael E Leckrone, Dedra Jones Markovich, Darla Mansfield, Dorita Avila, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari, and Jorge Paz Rodriguez

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EXPRESS: What is the Median Volume of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and is it Changing?, David Robinson, Carson Van Sanford, Soo Young Kwon, Elisheva Coleman, Padmini Sekar, Ryan Murphy, Matthew Flaherty, Stacie Demel, Yasmin Aziz, Charles Moomaw, Mary Haverbusch, Jane Khoury, Opeolu Adeoye, Kyle Walsh, Joseph P Broderick, and Daniel Woo

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Predictors of Outcomes in Patients With Mild Ischemic Stroke Symptoms: MaRISS., Jose G Romano, Hannah Gardener, Iszet Campo-Bustillo, Yosef Khan, Sofie Tai, Nikesha Riley, Eric E Smith, Ralph L Sacco, Pooja Khatri, Heather M Alger, Brian Mac Grory, Deepak Gulati, Navdeep S Sangha, Jeffrey M Craig, Karin E Olds, Curtis G Benesch, Adam G Kelly, Scott S Brehaut, Amit C Kansara, Lee H Schwamm, and MaRISS Investigators

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Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Clinical Fluctuations Before Hospital Arrival in Stroke., Jose G Romano, Hannah Gardener, Eric E Smith, Iszet Campo-Bustillo, Yosef Khan, Sofie Tai, Nikesha Riley, Ralph L Sacco, Pooja Khatri, Heather M Alger, Brian Mac Grory, Deepak Gulati, Navdeep S Sangha, Karin E Olds, Curtis G Benesch, Adam G Kelly, Scott S Brehaut, Amit Kansara, and Lee H Schwamm

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Novel robotic TCD ultrasound with bubbles versus standard care to detect right to left shunt: Study methods., Mark N Rubin, Andrei V Alexandrov, Colleen Douville, Brenda Rinsky, and Georgios Tsivgoulis

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Increased Intracranial Pressure: The Use of an Individualized Ladder Approach., Marlon G Saria and Santosh Kesari

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Phase I trial of intranasal NEO100, highly purified perillyl alcohol, in adult patients with recurrent glioblastoma., Axel H Schönthal, David M Peereboom, Naveed Wagle, Rose Lai, Anna J Mathew, Kyle M Hurth, Vincent F Simmon, Steven P Howard, Lynne P Taylor, Frances Chow, Clovis O da Fonseca, and Thomas C Chen

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Gelatin methacrylate hydrogels culture model for glioblastoma cells enriches for mesenchymal-like state and models interactions with immune cells., Nameeta Shah, Pavan M Hallur, Raksha A Ganesh, Pranali Sonpatki, Divya Naik, Komal Prasad Chandrachari, Ralph B Puchalski, and Aditya Chaubey

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Top Ten Tips Palliative Care Clinicians Should Know About Seizures at the End of Life., Akanksha Sharma, Jessica M Besbris, Neha M Kramer, Farrah N Daly, Divya Singhal, Christopher A Jones, and Ambereen K Mehta

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How much time do we have? Longitudinal perception of prognosis in newly-diagnosed high grade glioma patients and caregivers compared to clinicians., Akanksha Sharma, Briant Fruth, Celina Barrera, Hannah N Farfour, Maciej M Mrugala, Mark K Edwin, Jeff A Sloan, and Alyx B Porter

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Supportive care for patients with brain metastases from lung cancer., Akanksha Sharma and Maciej M Mrugala

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Updates on Molecular Targeted Therapies for Intraparenchymal CNS Metastases., Akanksha Sharma, Lauren Singer, and Priya Kumthekar

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Current status of gastrointestinal tract cancer brain metastasis and the use of blood-based cancer biomarker biopsy., Yoshiaki Shoji, Satoru Furuhashi, Daniel F Kelly, Anton J Bilchik, Dave S B Hoon, and Matias A Bustos

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Primary external auditory canal meningioma: Case report and review of the literature., Jeffrey Singh, Uresh Patel, and Douglas Backous

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Clinical outcomes of patients with multiple sclerosis treated with ocrelizumab in a US community MS center: an observational study., Kyle Smoot, Chiayi Chen, Tamela Stuchiner, Lindsay Lucas, Lois Grote, and Stanley Cohan