Our expanded team of specialists – many of whom completed fellowships and residencies at prestigious academic centers – offers comprehensive services for treating any condition of the brain, spine and nervous system. With nearly 50 subspecialties represented, we offer complex and minimally invasive surgery as well as ongoing care for pituitary and skull base tumors, stroke, peripheral nerve disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, epilepsy and more.

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Submissions from 2021

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The American Society of Pain and Neuroscience (ASPN) Best Practices and Guidelines for the Interventional Management of Cancer-Associated Pain., Mansoor M Aman, Ammar Mahmoud, Timothy Deer, Dawood Sayed, Jonathan M Hagedorn, Shane E Brogan, Vinita Singh, Amitabh Gulati, Natalie Strand, Jacqueline Weisbein, Johnathan H Goree, Fangfang Xing, Ali Valimahomed, Daniel J Pak, Antonios El Helou, Priyanka Ghosh, Krishna Shah, Vishal Patel, Alexander Escobar, Keith Schmidt, Jay Shah, Vishal Varshney, William Rosenberg, and Sanjeet Narang

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Predictors of Extended Hospitalization and Early Reoperation After Elective Lumbar Disc Arthroplasty., Darius Ansari, Justin T DesLaurier, Saavan Patel, Jens R Chapman, and Rod J Oskouian

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Three-stage revision arthroplasty for the treatment of fungal periprosthetic joint infection: outcome analysis of a novel treatment algorithm : a prospective study., Hinnerk Baecker, Sven Frieler, Jan Geßmann, Stephan Pauly, Thomas A Schildhauer, and Yannik Hanusrichter

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Systems modeling of metabolic dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases., Priyanka Baloni, Cory C Funk, Ben Readhead, and Nathan D Price

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Evaluation of FKBP5 as a cortisol activity biomarker in patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome., Irina Bancos, Betul Ayse Hatipoglu, Kevin C J Yuen, Lakshmi Chandramohan, Sandeep Chaudhari, and Andreas G Moraitis

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Creating Clinically Relevant Aneurysm Sizes in the Rabbit Surgical Elastase Model., Brooke L Belanger, Michael B Avery, Arindom Sen, Muneer Eesa, and Alim P Mitha

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Adding Incapacity to Injury: A Case of Trauma and Central Cord Syndrome, Christopher Bender and Jesse Powell

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Safety evaluation of shorter infusion for ocrelizumab in a substudy of the Phase IIIb CHORDS trial., Robert A Bermel, Emmanuelle Waubant, Gabriel Pardo, Ann Bass, P Repovic, Scott Newsome, John W Lindsey, Deidre Kile, Ashish Pradhan, Bruno Musch, and Aram Zabeti

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Exercise training and cognition in multiple sclerosis: The GET Smart trial protocol., Charles H Bombardier, Robert W Motl, Ralph H B Benedict, Nancy Temkin, P Qian, Katharine Alexander, Annabeth Evans, Andrea Thomas, Kristin Toms, Cathea M Carey, and George H Kraft

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The peridural membrane of the spine has characteristics of synovium., Hemmo A Bosscher, Petar N Grozdanov, Irfan I Warraich, Clinton C MacDonald, and Miles R Day

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Structural and Functional Imaging in Glioma Management., Bledi C Brahimaj, Ryan B Kochanski, John J Pearce, Melike Guryildirim, Carter S Gerard, Mehmet Kocak, Sepehr Sani, and Richard W Byrne

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Multicenter assessment of outcomes and complications associated with transforaminal versus anterior lumbar interbody fusion for fractional curve correction., Thomas J Buell, Christopher I Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Han Jo Kim, Eric O Klineberg, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Peter G Passias, Gregory M Mundis, Robert K Eastlack, Vedat Deviren, Michael P Kelly, Alan H Daniels, Jeffrey L Gum, Alex Soroceanu, D Kojo Hamilton, Munish C Gupta, Douglas C Burton, Richard A Hostin, Khaled M Kebaish, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Christopher P Ames, Justin S Smith, and International Spine Study Group

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Global coronal decompensation and adult spinal deformity surgery: comparison of upper-thoracic versus lower-thoracic proximal fixation for long fusions., Thomas J Buell, Christopher I Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Eric O Klineberg, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Peter G Passias, Gregory M Mundis, Robert K Eastlack, Vedat Deviren, Michael P Kelly, Alan H Daniels, Jeffrey L Gum, Alex Soroceanu, D Kojo Hamilton, Munish C Gupta, Douglas C Burton, Richard A Hostin, Khaled M Kebaish, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher P Ames, Justin S Smith, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Theoretical impact of the AT(N) framework on dementia using a community autopsy sample., Bridget Teevan Burke, Caitlin Latimer, C Dirk Keene, Joshua A Sonnen, Wayne McCormick, J D Bowen, Susan M McCurry, Eric B Larson, and Paul K Crane

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Essentialism and Spine Surgery in Times of Pandemia: With Reflections on the Contributions of the Late Friedrich P. Magerl., Jens R Chapman, Jeffrey C Wang, and Karsten Wiechert

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SNO 2020 diversity survey: defining demographics, racial biases, career success metrics and a path forward for the field of neuro-oncology., Ugonma N Chukwueke, Elizabeth Vera, Alvina Acquaye, Shawn L Hervey-Jumper, Yazmin Odia, Laura J Klesse, Erin Dunbar, Akanksha Sharma, Ekokobe Fonkem, Alissa A Thomas, Tamra E Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Na Tosha N Gatson, Macarena I de la Fuente, Terri S Armstrong, Alyx B Porter, and Sadhana Jackson

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Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Ozanimod and Dimethyl Fumarate for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Using Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison., Stanley Cohan, Jinender Kumar, Stella Arndorfer, Xuelian Zhu, Marko Zivkovic, and Tom Tencer

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Interferons and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons from 25 Years of Clinical and Real-World Experience with Intramuscular Interferon Beta-1a (Avonex)., Stanley L Cohan, Barry A Hendin, Anthony T Reder, Kyle Smoot, Robin Avila, Jason P Mendoza, and Bianca Weinstock-Guttman

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Matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparison of ozanimod versus teriflunomide for relapsing multiple sclerosis., Stanley Cohan, Tom Tencer, Stella Arndorfer, Xuelian Zhu, Marko Zivkovic, and Jinender Kumar

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Frequency-specific Electrocochleography and Traveling Wave Time as a Clinical Test for Menière's Disease., Robert M Conway, E M Sugihara, David M Lee, Jaclyn Renker, Pedrom C Sioshansi, and Seilesh C Babu

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Microsurgical Clipping of Carotid-Ophthalmic Tandem Aneurysms: Case Report and Surgical Nuances., Matias Costa, Matías Baldoncini, Zachary L Tataryn, Mickaela Echavarria Demichelis, Agustin Conde, Cynthia Purves, Alice Giotta Lucifero, Juha Hernesniemi, and Sabino Luzzi

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Types of Stroke Among People Living With HIV in the United States., Heidi M Crane, Robin M Nance, Tigran Avoundjian, Barbara N Harding, Bridget M Whitney, Felicia C Chow, Kyra J Becker, Christina M Marra, Joseph R Zunt, Emily L Ho, Rizwan Kalani, Andrew Huffer, Greer A Burkholder, Amanda L Willig, Richard D Moore, William C Mathews, Joseph J Eron, Sonia Napravnik, William B Lober, Greg S Barnes, Justin McReynolds, Matthew J Feinstein, Susan R Heckbert, Michael S Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Joseph A C Delaney, and David L Tirschwell

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Examination of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients Undergoing Surgery with Implanted Spinal Cord Stimulators and Intrathecal Pumps., Alan H Daniels, Wesley M Durand, Alyssa J Steinbaum, Renaud Lafage, D Kojo Hamilton, Peter G Passias, Han Jo Kim, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Virginie Lafage, Justin S Smith, Christopher Shaffrey, Munish Gupta, Eric O Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Jeffrey L Gum, Gregory Mundis, Robert Eastlack, Khaled Kebaish, Alex Soroceanu, Richard A Hostin, Doug Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher Ames, Robert A Hart, and ISSG Foundation

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Gliosarcoma vs. glioblastoma: a retrospective case series using molecular profiling., Christopher Dardis, David Donner, Nader Sanai, Joanne Xiu, Sandeep Mittal, Sharon K Michelhaugh, Manjari Pandey, Santosh Kesari, Amy B Heimberger, Zoran Gatalica, Michael W Korn, Ashley L Sumrall, and Surasak Phuphanich

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Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of 8-week self-administered at-home behavioral skills-based virtual reality (VR) for chronic low back pain (during COVID-19)., Beth Darnall, Laura Garcia, Brandon Birckhead, Parthasarathy Krishnamurthy, Ian Mackey, Josh Sackman, Robert Louis, and Todd Maddox

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Risks, Rates and Odds: What's the Difference and Why Does It Matter?, Joseph R Dettori, Daniel C Norvell, and Jens R Chapman

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Effects of Pyridostigmine on Esophageal and Pharyngeal Motility in Dysphagic Patients Undergoing High-Resolution Manometry., Shumon I Dhar, Nogah Nativ-Zeltzer, Omid B Mehdizadeh, Apoorva T Ramaswamy, Yuval Nachalon, and Peter C Belafsky

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Bilateral carotid dissection due to Eagle syndrome in a young female., Walter R Duarte-Celada, Dongkwan Jin, Gabriel Neves, and Thomas Windisch

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Artificial intelligence clustering of adult spinal deformity sagittal plane morphology predicts surgical characteristics, alignment, and outcomes., Wesley M Durand, Renaud Lafage, D Kojo Hamilton, Peter G Passias, Han Jo Kim, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Virginie Lafage, Justin S Smith, Christopher Shaffrey, Munish Gupta, Michael P Kelly, Eric O Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Jeffrey L Gum, Gregory Mundis, Robert Eastlack, Khaled Kebaish, Alex Soroceanu, Richard A Hostin, Doug Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher Ames, Robert A Hart, Alan H Daniels, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Modified RANO, Immunotherapy RANO, and Standard RANO Response to Convection-Enhanced Delivery of IL4R-Targeted Immunotoxin MDNA55 in Recurrent Glioblastoma., Benjamin M Ellingson, John Sampson, Achal Singh Achrol, Manish K Aghi, Krystof Bankiewicz, Chencai Wang, Martin Bexon, Steven Brem, Andrew Brenner, Sajeel Chowdhary, John R Floyd, Seunggu Han, Santosh Kesari, Dina Randazzo, Michael A Vogelbaum, Frank Vrionis, Miroslaw Zabek, Nicholas Butowski, Melissa Coello, Nina Merchant, and Fahar Merchant

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Interspinous Process (ISP) Devices in Comparison to the Use of Traditional Posterior Spinal Instrumentation., Jordan E Faulkner, Kareem Khalifeh, Junko Hara, and Burak Ozgur

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Associations of practical, emotional, and physical problems with psychosocial distress among cancer patients., Mark William Flanagan, Heather H Goltz, John W Henson, and Matthew Lee Smith

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Intra-arterial Melphalan for Neurologic Non-Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis., Jasmine H Francis, Y Pierre Gobin, Ruham Alshiekh Nasany, Jared Knopman, Gary A Ulaner, Katherine S Panageas, Vaios Hatzoglou, Kim Salvaggio, David H Abramson, Athos Patsalides, and Eli L Diamond

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The effect of specific binding proteins on immunoassay measurements of total and free thyroid hormones and cortisol., Anastasia Gant Kanegusuku, Katherine A Araque, Hung Nguyen, Bin Wei, Saman Hosseini, and Steven J Soldin

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Self-Administered Behavioral Skills-Based At-Home Virtual Reality Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial., Laura Garcia, Beth Darnall, Parthasarathy Krishnamurthy, Ian Mackey, Josh Sackman, Robert Louis, Todd Maddox, and Brandon Birckhead

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Correction: Self-Administered Behavioral Skills-Based At-Home Virtual Reality Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial., Laura M Garcia, Beth D Darnall, Parthasarathy Krishnamurthy, Ian G Mackey, Josh Sackman, Robert G Louis, Todd Maddox, and Brandon J Birckhead

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Treatment of Advanced Parkinson's Disease., Rebecca Gilbert and Pravin Khemani

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Microtia Reconstruction and Erector Spinae Block in Children: A Case Series With Chart Review., Gabriel Gomez, Beth Osterbauer, Robert Nguyen, Choo Phei Wee, Amit Kochhar, Tymon Tai, Carl Yuan-Feng Lo, Sang Le, Eugene Kim, and Shiu-Yi Chen

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Adult pilocytic astrocytoma in the molecular era: a comprehensive review., Timothy A Gregory, Lyndon B Chumbley, John W Henson, and Brett J Theeler

Opsoclonus After COVID-19 in an Infant., Darion L Heald, Irisa M Devine, Roderic L Smith, Sarah A T Holsopple, Jessica L Arasmith, and Robert W Arnold

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Opsoclonus After COVID-19 in an Infant., Darion L Heald, Irisa M Devine, Roderic L Smith, Sarah A T Holsopple, Jessica L Arasmith, and Robert W Arnold

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Improvement in some Ames-ISSG cervical deformity classification modifier grades may correlate with clinical improvement., Samantha R Horn, Peter G Passias, Lara Passfall, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Gregory W Poorman, Leah M Steinmetz, Cole A Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Bassel Diebo, Robert Hart, Douglas Burton, Christopher I Shaffrey, Daniel M Sciubba, Eric O Klineberg, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Healthcare utilization and cost outcomes for a multicenter first seizure and new onset epilepsy clinic., Emily R Hudson, Alexandra Lesko, Lindsay Lucas, Elizabeth Baraban, and Evan J Fertig

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Resilience and Dementia, Nancy B. Isenberg

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Comparing Combined Anterior and Posterior to Posterior-Only Decompression and Fusion Crossing the Cervico-Thoracic Junction in Octogenarians., Basem Ishak, Amir Abdul-Jabbar, Alexander von Glinski, Emre Yilmaz, Andreas W Unterberg, Sarah Hopkins, Jeffrey R Roh, Rod J Oskouian, Robert A Hart, and Jens R Chapman

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Standardizing fatigue measurement in multiple sclerosis: the validity, responsiveness and score interpretation of the PROMIS SF v1.0 - Fatigue (MS) 8a., Paul Kamudoni, Jeffrey Johns, Karon F Cook, Rana Salem, Sam Salek, Jana Raab, Rod Middleton, Christian Henke, Pavle Repovic, Kevin Alschuler, Gloria von Geldern, Annette Wundes, and Dagmar Amtmann

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Safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 5-year open-label study (EXTEND): final results following early termination., Ludwig Kappos, Stanley Cohan, Douglas L Arnold, Randy R Robinson, Joan Holman, Sami Fam, Becky Parks, Shan Xiao, and Wanda Castro-Borrero

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates UV/endorphin and opioid addiction., Lajos V Kemény, Kathleen C Robinson, Andrea L Hermann, Deena M Walker, Susan Regan, Yik Weng Yew, Yi Chun Lai, Nicholas Theodosakis, Phillip D Rivera, Weihua Ding, Liuyue Yang, Tobias Beyer, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Jennifer A Lo, Anita A J van der Sande, William Sarnie, David Kotler, Jennifer J Hsiao, Mack Y Su, Shinichiro Kato, Joseph Kotler, Staci D Bilbo, Vanita Chopra, Matthew P Salomon, Shiqian Shen, Dave S B Hoon, Maryam M Asgari, Sarah E Wakeman, Eric J Nestler, and David E Fisher

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A Retrospective Evaluation and Review of Outcomes for Single- and Multilevel ACDF With a Zero-Profile Stand-Alone Cage Device With Integrated Instrumentation., Kareem Khalifeh, Jordan E Faulkner, Junko Hara, and Burak Ozgur

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MRI brain volume loss, lesion burden, and clinical outcome in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis., Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, Pavle Repovic, James D Bowen, Eva Strijbis, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Smoking, obesity, and disability worsening in PPMS: an analysis of the INFORMS original trial dataset., Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, Pavle Repovic, James D Bowen, Eva Strijbis, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Is the Symbol Digit Modalities Test a useful outcome in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis?, Marcus W Koch, Jop Mostert, P Repovic, J D Bowen, Bernard Uitdehaag, and Gary Cutter

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Orbital Surgical Guidelines-Clinical Evaluation., Howard Krauss

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A randomized evaluation of the TriGuard™ HDH cerebral embolic protection device to Reduce the Impact of Cerebral Embolic LEsions after TransCatheter Aortic Valve ImplanTation: the REFLECT I trial., Alexandra J Lansky, Rajendra Makkar, Tamim Nazif, Steven Messé, John Forrest, Rahul Sharma, Joachim Schofer, Axel Linke, David Brown, Abhijeet Dhoble, Phillip Horwitz, Ming Zang, Frederico DeMarco, Vivek Rajagopal, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov, Pieter Stella, Joshua Rovin, Helen Parise, Susheel Kodali, Andreas Baumbach, Jeffrey Moses, and REFLECT I Trial Investigators

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Pregnancy outcomes in women with epilepsy and MTHFR mutations supplemented with methylated folate and methylcobalamin (methylated B12)., Emma M Lascar, Nicole M Warner, and Michael J Doherty

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Associations Between Retinal Artery/Vein Occlusions and Risk of Vascular Dementia., Cecilia S Lee, Michael L Lee, Laura E Gibbons, Ryan T Yanagihara, Marian Blazes, Jason P Kam, Susan M McCurry, J D Bowen, Wayne C McCormick, Aaron Y Lee, Eric B Larson, and Paul K Crane

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Brain volume change after high-dose immunosuppression and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis., Hyunwoo Lee, Kunio Nakamura, Sridar Narayanan, Robert A Brown, Richard A Nash, Linda M Griffith, Kaitlyn C Steinmiller, Steven M Devine, George J Hutton, Uday Popat, Michael K Racke, George E Georges, James D Bowen, and Douglas L Arnold

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Cordycepin inhibits the proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells through the p53/Sp1/tubulin pathway., Ming-Jen Lee, Jen-Chieh Lee, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, May-Yao Lin, I-An Shih, Huey-Ling You, and Kai Wang

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Modulating innate immune activation states impacts the efficacy of specific Aβ immunotherapy., Yona Levites, Cory Funk, Xue Wang, Paramita Chakrabarty, Karen N McFarland, Baxter Bramblett, Veronica O'Neal, Xufei Liu, Thomas Ladd, Max Robinson, Mariet Allen, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Dennis Dickson, Pedro Cruz, Danny Ryu, Hong-Dong Li, Nathan D Price, NIlüfer Ertekin-Taner, and Todd E Golde

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Integrative functional genomic analysis of intron retention in human and mouse brain with Alzheimer's disease., Hong-Dong Li, Cory C Funk, Karen McFarland, Eric B Dammer, Mariet Allen, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Yona Levites, Paramita Chakrabarty, Jeremy D Burgess, Xue Wang, Dennis Dickson, Nicholas T Seyfried, Duc M Duong, James J Lah, Steven G Younkin, Allan I Levey, Gilbert S Omenn, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Todd E Golde, and Nathan D Price

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Pregnancy outcomes of refractory epilepsy patients treated with Brain-responsive neurostimulation., Yi Li, Dawn Eliashiv, Sara C LaHue, Vikram R Rao, Michael L Martini, Fedor Panov, Joel M Oster, June Yoshii-Contreras, Christopher T Skidmore, Laura A Kalayjian, David Millett, and Kimford J Meador

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Early Experience With Virtual and Synchronized Augmented Reality Platform for Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Navigation: A Case Series., Robert G Louis, Gary K Steinberg, Christopher Duma, Gavin Britz, Vivek Mehta, Jonathan Pace, Warren Selman, and Walter C Jean

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Changes in Angioarchitecture After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula., Benton Maglinger, M Maher Hulou, Christopher J McLouth, Madison Sands, Damodar Pokhrel, William H St Clair, Stephen Grupke, and Justin F Fraser

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Intracranial VCAM1 at time of mechanical thrombectomy predicts ischemic stroke severity., Benton Maglinger, Madison Sands, Jacqueline A Frank, Christopher J McLouth, Amanda L Trout, Jill M Roberts, Stephen Grupke, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Ann M Stowe, Justin F Fraser, and Keith R Pennypacker

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Streamlining brain tumor surgery care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case-control study., Regin Jay Mallari, Michael B Avery, Alex Corlin, Amalia Eisenberg, Terese C Hammond, Neil A Martin, Garni Barkhoudarian, and Daniel F Kelly

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Endoscopic Endonasal and Supraorbital Removal of Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas: Anatomic Guides and Operative Nuances for Keyhole Approach Selection., Regin Jay Mallari, Jai Deep Thakur, John H Rhee, Amalia Eisenberg, Howard Krauss, Chester Griffiths, Walavan Sivakumar, Garni Barkhoudarian, and Daniel F Kelly

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A systems-biology clinical trial of a personalized multimodal lifestyle intervention for early Alzheimer's disease., Sarah C McEwen, David A Merrill, Jennifer Bramen, Verna Porter, Stella Panos, Scott Kaiser, John Hodes, Aarthi Ganapathi, Lesley Bell, Tess Bookheimer, Ryan Glatt, Molly Rapozo, Mary Kay Ross, Nathan D Price, Daniel Kelly, Cory C Funk, Leroy Hood, and Jared C Roach

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Microglia show differential transcriptomic response to Aβ peptide aggregates ex vivo and in vivo., Karen N McFarland, Carolina Ceballos, Awilda Rosario, Thomas Ladd, Brenda Moore, Griffin Golde, Xue Wang, Mariet Allen, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Cory C Funk, Max Robinson, Priyanka Baloni, Noa Rappaport, Paramita Chakrabarty, and Todd E Golde

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Safety of the APOLLO Onyx delivery microcatheter for embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: results from a prospective post-market study., Philip M Meyers, Johanna T Fifi, Kevin M Cockroft, Timothy R Miller, Curtis A Given, Ali R Zomorodi, Bharathi D Jagadeesan, Maxim Mokin, Peter Kan, Tom L Yao, Orlando Diaz, Daniel Huddle, Richard J Bellon, Joshua Seinfeld, Adam J Polifka, David Fiorella, Rohan V Chitale, Peter Kvamme, Jay T Morrow, Justin Singer, Ajay K Wakhloo, Ajit S Puri, Vivek Deshmukh, Ricardo A Hanel, L Fernando Gonzalez, Henry H Woo, and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan

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Functional enhancer elements drive subclass-selective expression from mouse to primate neocortex., John K Mich, Lucas T Graybuck, Erik E Hess, Joseph T Mahoney, Yoshiko Kojima, Yi Ding, Saroja Somasundaram, Jeremy A Miller, Brian E Kalmbach, Cristina Radaelli, Bryan B Gore, Natalie Weed, Victoria Omstead, Yemeserach Bishaw, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Refugio A Martinez, Olivia Fong, Shenqin Yao, Marty Mortrud, Peter Chong, Luke Loftus, Darren Bertagnolli, Jeff Goldy, Tamara Casper, Nick Dee, Ximena Opitz-Araya, Ali Cetin, Kimberly A Smith, Ryder P Gwinn, Charles Cobbs, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, C Dirk Keene, Daniel L Silbergeld, Susan M Sunkin, Viviana Gradinaru, Gregory D Horwitz, Hongkui Zeng, Bosiljka Tasic, Ed S Lein, Jonathan T Ting, and Boaz P Levi

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Fenfluramine in the successful treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus in a patient with Dravet syndrome., David Millett and Suzanne Pach

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Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care., Raul G Nogueira, Mohamad Abdalkader, Muhammed M Qureshi, Michael R Frankel, Ossama Yassin Mansour, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Mehdi Farhoudi, James E Siegler, Shadi Yaghi, Eytan Raz, Nobuyuki Sakai, Nobuyuki Ohara, Michel Piotin, Laura Mechtouff, Omer Eker, Vanessa Chalumeau, Timothy J Kleinig, Raoul Pop, Jianmin Liu, Hugh S Winters, Xianjin Shang, Alejandro Rodriguez Vasquez, Jordi Blasco, Juan F Arenillas, Mario Martinez-Galdamez, Alex Brehm, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Pedro Lylyk, Diogo C Haussen, Alhamza R Al-Bayati, Mahmoud H Mohammaden, Luísa Fonseca, M Luís Silva, Francisco Montalverne, Leonardo Renieri, Salvatore Mangiafico, Urs Fischer, Jan Gralla, Donald Frei, Chandril Chugh, Brijesh P Mehta, Simon Nagel, Markus Mohlenbruch, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Mudassir Farooqui, Ameer E Hassan, Allan Taylor, Bertrand Lapergue, Arturo Consoli, Bruce Cv Campbell, Malveeka Sharma, Melanie Walker, Noel Van Horn, Jens Fiehler, Huy Thang Nguyen, Quoc T Nguyen, Daisuke Watanabe, Hao Zhang, Huynh V Le, Viet Q Nguyen, Ruchir Shah, Thomas Devlin, Priyank Khandelwal, Italo Linfante, Wazim Izzath, Pablo M Lavados, Veronica V Olavarría, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Anna Verena de Carvalho Sousa, Jawad Kirmani, Martin Bendszus, Tatsuo Amano, Ryoo Yamamoto, Ryosuke Doijiri, Naoki Tokuda, Takehiro Yamada, Tadashi Terasaki, Yukako Yazawa, Jane G Morris, Emma Griffin, John Thornton, Pascale Lavoie, Charles Matouk, Michael D Hill, Andrew M Demchuk, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer, Fadi Nahab, Dorothea Altschul, Anna Ramos-Pachón, Natalia Pérez de la Ossa, Raghid Kikano, William Boisseau, Gregory Walker, Steve M Cordina, Ajit Puri, Anna Luisa Kuhn, Dheeraj Gandhi, Pankajavalli Ramakrishnan, Roberta Novakovic-White, Alex Chebl, Odysseas Kargiotis, Alexandra Czap, Alicia Zha, Hesham E Masoud, Carlos Lopez, David Ozretic, Fawaz Al-Mufti, Wenjie Zie, Zhenhui Duan, Zhengzhou Yuan, Wenguo Huang, Yonggang Hao, Jun Luo, Vladimir Kalousek, Romain Bourcier, Romain Guile, Steven Hetts, Hosam M Al-Jehani, Adel AlHazzani, Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Mohamed Teleb, Jeremy Payne, Jin Soo Lee, Ji Man Hong, Sung-Il Sohn, Yang-Ha Hwang, Dong Hoon Shin, Hong Gee Roh, Randy Edgell, Rakesh Khatri, Ainsley Smith, Amer Malik, David Liebeskind, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Pedro Magalhaes, Atilla Ozcan Ozdemir, Ozlem Aykac, Takeshi Uwatoko, Tomohisa Dembo, Hisao Shimizu, Yuri Sugiura, Fumio Miyashita, Hiroki Fukuda, Kosuke Miyake, Junsuke Shimbo, Yusuke Sugimura, Andre Beer-Furlan, Krishna Joshi, Luciana Catanese, Daniel Giansante Abud, Octavio Giansante Neto, Masoud Mehrpour, Amal Al Hashmi, Mahar Saqqur, Abdulrahman Mostafa, Johanna T Fifi, Syed Hussain, Seby John, Rishi Gupta, Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann, Anna Reznik, Achmad Fidaus Sani, Serdar Geyik, Eşref Akıl, Anchalee Churojana, Abdoreza Ghoreishi, Mohammad Saadatnia, Ehsan Sharifipour, Alice Ma, Ken Faulder, Teddy Wu, Lester Leung, Adel Malek, Barbara Voetsch, Ajay Wakhloo, Rodrigo Rivera, Danny Moises Barrientos Iman, Aleksandra Pikula, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Gotz Thomalla, Lee Birnbaum, Paolo Machi, Gianmarco Bernava, Mollie McDermott, Dawn Kleindorfer, Ken Wong, Mary S Patterson, Jose Antonio Fiorot, Vikram Huded, William Mack, Matthew Tenser, Clifford Eskey, Sumeet Multani, Michael Kelly, Vallabh Janardhan, Oriana Cornett, Varsha Singh, Yuichi Murayama, Maxim Mokin, Pengfei Yang, Xiaoxi Zhang, Congguo Yin, Hongxing Han, Ya Peng, Wenhuo Chen, Roberto Crosa, Michel Eli Frudit, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Anirudh Kulkarni, Yoshiki Yagita, Yohei Takenobu, Yuji Matsumaru, Satoshi Yamada, Ryuhei Kono, Takuya Kanamaru, Hidekazu Yamazaki, Manabu Sakaguchi, Kenichi Todo, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Kazutaka Sonoda, Tomoko Yoshida, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Ichiro Nakahara, Elena Cora, David Volders, Celina Ducroux, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Johanna Ospel, Artem Kaliaev, Saima Ahmed, Umair Rashid, Leticia C Rebello, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Robert Fahed, Michael Chen, Sunil A Sheth, Lina Palaiodimou, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Ronil Chandra, Feliks Koyfman, Thomas Leung, Houman Khosravani, Sushrut Dharmadhikari, Giovanni Frisullo, Paolo Calabresi, Alexander Tsiskaridze, Nino Lobjanidze, Mikayel Grigoryan, Anna Czlonkowska, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Helmi L Lutsep, Óscar Ayo-Martín, Antonio Cruz-Culebras, Anh D Tran, Chang Y Young, Charlotte Cordonnier, Francois Caparros, Maria Alonso De Lecinana, Blanca Fuentes, Dileep Yavagal, Tudor Jovin, Laurent Spelle, Jacques Moret, Pooja Khatri, Osama Zaidat, Jean Raymond, Sheila Martins, and Thanh Nguyen

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Incidence, Management, and Outcomes of Adult Spinal Chondrosarcoma Patients in the United States., Ravi S Nunna, Saavan Patel, Shashank N Patil, Darius Ansari, Taylor G Burch, Ankit I Mehta, Jens R Chapman, and Rod J Oskouian

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Abstract P77: Acute Stroke Trends and Outcomes During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Multi-System Hospital System in the Western US, Renee Ovando, Natalie Swearingen, Tamela Stuchiner, Leslie Corless, Crystal Ann Moreno, John Zurasky, Jason Tarpley, Radoslav Raychev, and Elizabeth Baraban

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COVID-19 Impact on Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment at 9 Comprehensive Stroke Centers across Los Angeles., M Maximillian Padrick, Navdeep Sangha, Laurie Paletz, James Mirocha, Sonia Figueroa, Vicki Manoukian, Konrad Schlick, Patrick D Lyden, David S Liebeskind, Fiona K Chatfield, Jason W Tarpley, Adrian Burgos, Matthew Tenser, Denise Gaffney, Marco A Pech, Edward Nazareth, Robert Jackson, Helaine Kauffman, Lisa Arnold, Jennifer Cox, Treasure Joyce, Catrice Nakamura, Darcie Fitzgerald, Kyle Ogami, Nili Steiner, Nicole Wolber, Betty Robertson, Rachel Izzo, Stefanie Gorski, Heather Manuel, Krystal Valdez, Liliana Reyes, Latisha K Sharma, and Shlee S Song

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Does glucose influence multidien cycles of interictal and/or ictal activities?, Alexa Pappas, Sanjay Kubsad, Maxime O Baud, Kyla E Wright, Devon M Kollmyer, Nicole M Warner, Alan M Haltiner, Ryder P Gwinn, and Michael J Doherty

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A Systems Approach to Brain Tumor Treatment., James H Park, Adrian Lopez Garcia de Lomana, Diego M Marzese, Tiffany Juarez, Abdullah Feroze, Parvinder Hothi, Charles Cobbs, Anoop P Patel, Santosh Kesari, Sui Huang, and Nitin S Baliga

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Increasing Cost Efficiency in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Identifying Predictors of Lower Total Costs., Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole Bortz, Haddy Alas, Katherine Pierce, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Lawal A Labaran, Christopher Ames, Douglas C Burton, Jeffrey Gum, Robert Hart, Richard Hostin, Khaled M Kebaish, Brian J Neuman, Shay Bess, Breton Line, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin Smith, Frank Schwab, Eric Klineberg, and International Spine Study Group

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A Risk Benefit Analysis of Increasing Surgical Invasiveness Relative to Frailty Status in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery., Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole Bortz, Katherine Pierce, Haddy Alas, Waleed Ahmad, Lara Passfall, Nicholas Kummer, Oscar Krol, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Douglas Burton, Robert A Hart, Neel Anand, Gregory Mundis, Brian Neuman, Breton Line, Christopher Shaffrey, Eric Klineberg, Justin Smith, Christopher Ames, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, and International Spine Study Group

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Effect of age-adjusted alignment goals and distal inclination angle on the fate of distal junctional kyphosis in cervical deformity surgery., Peter Gust Passias, Samantha R Horn, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, Cole Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Katherine E Pierce, Avery E Brown, Haddy Alas, Han Jo Kim, Alan H Daniels, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Christopher P Ames, and International Spine Study Group

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Redefining cervical spine deformity classification through novel cutoffs: An assessment of the relationship between radiographic parameters and functional neurological outcomes., Peter Gust Passias, Katherine E Pierce, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Breton Line, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert Hart, Alan H Daniels, Shay Bess, Bassel Diebo, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Robert Eastlack, Christopher I Shaffrey, Frank J Schwab, Justin S Smith, Christopher Ames, and On Behalf Of The International Spine Study Group

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Anticoagulation Therapy Reduces Recurrent Stroke in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source Patients With Elevated Coagulation Markers or Severe Left Atrial Enlargement., Kishan Patel, Elio Mikhael, Michael Liu, Srikant Rangaraju, Deandra Ellis, Alexander Duncan, Samir Belagaje, Trina Belair, Laura Henriquez, and Fadi Nahab

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Perioperative dual antiplatelet therapy for patients undergoing spine surgery soon after drug eluting stent placement., Sophie M Peeters, Daniel Nagasawa, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Tianyi Niu, Alexander Tucker, Mark Attiah, Diana Babayan, Natalie Moreland, Isaac Yang, Marcela Calfon Press, and Luke Macyszyn

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Effect of High-frequency (10-kHz) Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Erika A Petersen, Thomas G Stauss, James A Scowcroft, Elizabeth S Brooks, Judith L White, Shawn M Sills, Kasra Amirdelfan, Maged N Guirguis, Jijun Xu, Cong Yu, Ali Nairizi, Denis G Patterson, Kostandinos C Tsoulfas, Michael J Creamer, Vincent Galan, Richard H Bundschu, Christopher A Paul, Neel D Mehta, Heejung Choi, Dawood Sayed, Shivanand P Lad, David J DiBenedetto, Khalid A Sethi, Johnathan H Goree, Matthew T Bennett, Nathan J Harrison, Atef F Israel, Paul Chang, Paul W Wu, Gennady Gekht, Charles E Argoff, Christian E Nasr, Rod S Taylor, Jeyakumar Subbaroyan, Bradford E Gliner, David L Caraway, and Nagy A Mekhail

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Predictors of Superior Recovery Kinetics in Adult Cervical Deformity Correction: An Analysis Using a Novel Area Under the Curve Methodology., Katherine E Pierce, Peter G Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Kojo Hamilton, Jeffrey Gum, Justin Scheer, Alan Daniels, Shay Bess, Alex Soroceanu, Eric Klineberg, Christopher Shaffrey, Breton Line, Frank A Schwab, Justin S Smith, and International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

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Baseline Frailty Status Influences Recovery Patterns and Outcomes Following Alignment Correction of Cervical Deformity., Katherine E Pierce, Peter G Passias, Alan H Daniels, Renaud Lafage, Waleed Ahmad, Sara Naessig, Virginie Lafage, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Robert Eastlack, Robert A Hart, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, and Christopher Ames

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Glioma Stem Cells as Immunotherapeutic Targets: Advancements and Challenges., Keenan J Piper, Lisa DePledge, Michael Karsy, and Charles Cobbs

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Surgical outcomes in rigid versus flexible cervical deformities., Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Nicholas Stekas, Justin S Smith, Alexandra Soroceanu, Renaud Lafage, Alan H Daniels, Han Jo Kim, Peter G Passias, Gregory M Mundis, Eric O Klineberg, D Kojo Hamilton, Munish Gupta, Virginie Lafage, Robert A Hart, Frank Schwab, Douglas C Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, and Christopher P Ames

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Pooled Safety Results Through One Year of Two Phase-3 Trials of Guselkumab in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis., Proton Rahman, Christopher T Ritchlin, Philip S Helliwell, Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Philip J Mease, Alice B Gottlieb, Shelly Kafka, Alexa P Kollmeier, Elizabeth C Hsia, Xie L Xu, May Shawi, Shihong Sheng, Prasheen Agarwal, Bei Zhou, Paraneedharan Ramachandran, Yanli Zhuang, and Iain B McInnes

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Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Classification Systems: What Is Available and a Proposed Alternative., Wyatt L Ramey and Jens R Chapman

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Cortical Responses to Vagus Nerve Stimulation Are Modulated by Brain State in Nonhuman Primates., Irene Rembado, Weiguo Song, David K Su, Ariel Levari, Larry E Shupe, Steve Perlmutter, Eberhard Fetz, and Stavros Zanos

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Response to: "The Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6" Commentary by Rowland et al., Zubir Rentiya, Robert Hutnik, and Junun Bae

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Facebook Live: HMR Weight Management: Insights into Successful Weight Loss, Rick Riess and Frances Broyles

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Correction to: Clinical feasibility of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis., Neil H Riordan, Isabela Morales, Giselle Fernández, Nicole Allen, Neal E Fearnot, Michael E Leckrone, Dedra Jones Markovich, Darla Mansfield, Dorita Avila, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari, and Jorge Paz Rodriguez

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EXPRESS: What is the Median Volume of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and is it Changing?, David Robinson, Carson Van Sanford, Soo Young Kwon, Elisheva Coleman, Padmini Sekar, Ryan Murphy, Matthew Flaherty, Stacie Demel, Yasmin Aziz, Charles Moomaw, Mary Haverbusch, Jane Khoury, Opeolu Adeoye, Kyle Walsh, Joseph P Broderick, and Daniel Woo

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Predictors of Outcomes in Patients With Mild Ischemic Stroke Symptoms: MaRISS., Jose G Romano, Hannah Gardener, Iszet Campo-Bustillo, Yosef Khan, Sofie Tai, Nikesha Riley, Eric E Smith, Ralph L Sacco, Pooja Khatri, Heather M Alger, Brian Mac Grory, Deepak Gulati, Navdeep S Sangha, Jeffrey M Craig, Karin E Olds, Curtis G Benesch, Adam G Kelly, Scott S Brehaut, Amit C Kansara, Lee H Schwamm, and MaRISS Investigators

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Novel robotic TCD ultrasound with bubbles versus standard care to detect right to left shunt: Study methods., Mark N Rubin, Andrei V Alexandrov, Colleen Douville, Brenda Rinsky, and Georgios Tsivgoulis

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Increased Intracranial Pressure: The Use of an Individualized Ladder Approach., Marlon G Saria and Santosh Kesari

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Top Ten Tips Palliative Care Clinicians Should Know About Seizures at the End of Life., Akanksha Sharma, Jessica M Besbris, Neha M Kramer, Farrah N Daly, Divya Singhal, Christopher A Jones, and Ambereen K Mehta

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How much time do we have? Longitudinal perception of prognosis in newly-diagnosed high grade glioma patients and caregivers compared to clinicians., Akanksha Sharma, Briant Fruth, Celina Barrera, Hannah N Farfour, Maciej M Mrugala, Mark K Edwin, Jeff A Sloan, and Alyx B Porter